Spending on programmes to control India's three main communicable diseases—malaria, tuberculosis and leprosy—increased 7% over five years while cases reported, taken together, increased 32%, according to an IndiaSpend analysis of government data.

There has been a steady increase in the incidence of communicable diseases over the last five years, except malaria which saw a 14% decline, which can be attributed to a special focus on awareness and detection.

We found a correlation between cases reported and budgets over five years. As funding rose, cases declined.

Source: Lok Sabha, 1 & 2

Allocation and release figures for malaria, dengue, chikunguniya and Japanese encephalitis are totals under National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme.

The central government finances three disease-control programmes: National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP); Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP); and National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP).

The programmes are funded under the National Health Mission, which also includes programmes for child- and maternal-health, health infrastructure, prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment.

There was a 12% increase in the National Health Mission budget, from Rs 17,188 crore to Rs 19,307 crore between 2012 and 2016, according to this Accountability Initiative report in February 2016.

Source: Accountability Initiative

In dollar terms, the allocation declined from $3.2 billion to $2.9 billion. There has been an increase in the exchange rate from Rs 51 per dollar in 2011-12 to Rs 65 per dollar in 2016-17. The value of Indian money to dollar has depreciated over the last five years.

Communicable disease profile in India

The allocated funding has been increasing for the three main programmes, as we said, and is up 7.2% over five years, from Rs 924 crore in 2011-12 to Rs 991.5 crore in 2015-16.

The National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme covers malaria, dengue, chikunguniya and Japanese encephalitis, and also works for the elimination of Kala-azar and Lymphatic Filariasis. The allocation to the programme has seen a 3% decline, from Rs 482 crore in 2011-12 to Rs 463 crore in 2015-16.

While malaria cases declined 14%, dengue cases increased more than four times, chikunguniya and Japanese encephalitis rose 33%, according to a reply in the Lok Sabha (lower house of Parliament).

The tuberculosis-control budget rose 23% between 2011 and 2016, while cases reported almost doubled over the same period.

While there was a 16% decline in funding for the leprosy eradication programme, there was a 36% increase in leprosy cases nationwide.

There are also a host of other reasons, including dearth of awareness and access to medicine and treatment, which may have contributed to the rise of communicable diseases.

Over the last five years, funds released from the Centre to the states under the three main programmes--National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP); Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP); and National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP)--has been declining; it dropped from Rs 947 crore in 2011-12 to Rs 395 crore in 2015-16.

In the years 2011-12 and 2014-15, more funds were released than were allocated for the programmes.

In 2012-13, states received only half the funds budgeted for vector-borne diseases and leprosy.

(Salve is an analyst with IndiaSpend.)

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