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Gujarat Has Highest Reduction In Women Enrolment In Higher Education

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Highlights
* Marginal increase in women enrolments.
* Bihar sees highest increase in women enrolments.
* Kerala also sees high dropout rates.

 

 

Women constitute 48% of Indian population as per 2011 census but make up only 6 million of the 14 million students (42%) enrolled in higher education.

 

IndiaSpend’s Sourjya Bhowmick  looks at 5-year data released by the Ministry of Higher Education in its latest Annual Report 2011-12 and finds that the percentage of women enrolment has risen only marginally (1%) to 41.5% in 2010-11 from 40.55% in 2006-07.

 

And yet, 7 states – Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, J&K, Kerala, Punjab and Uttarakhand – have seen a drop in women enrolment in higher education.

 

Gujarat leads the list here, in proportionate terms. Women enrolments are up in absolute terms over the last five years from 312,081 to 358,353 but down as a percentage to overall enrolment.

 

Interestingly, Bihar has the best percentage increase in women enrolment in higher education.

 

The Central Government has initiated several programmes like the Indira Gandhi scholarship for single girls (Rs 200 per month for two years and Rs 9 crore disbursed in 2011-12) to guarantee education for women.

 

Table 1 gives an idea of women enrolment in higher education in India and the ranking of the states:

 

 Table 1: Bihar – A Surprise Gainer

 

2006-2007 2010-2011
States Women enrolment % of women Women enrolment %of women % increase
Bihar 150,114 24.5 215,748 31 6.5
Himachal Pradesh 48,240 44 66,114 49.5 5.5
Orissa 146,710 36 209,454 41 5
Rajasthan 146,783 34 298,750 38 4
Haryana 121,333 41 201,844 45 4
Jharkhand* 71,046 31 91,825 33.5 2.5
Maharashtra 659,231 41.5 858,313 44 2.5

 

*Jharkhand has a better % increase than Maharashtra due to rounding off.

 

(Source: Ministry of Human Resources & Development)

 

Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan, Haryana and Jharkhand are considered backward states when it comes to social indicators. However, these are the states that have considerably improved their women enrolment.

 

Now let us take a look at the states which have seen a decline in enrolments:

 

Table 2: Gujarat Leads Reduction In Enrolment

                                        

2006-2007

2010-2011

States Women enrolment % of women Women enrolment % of women % decline
Gujarat 312,081 44.5 358,353 40 4.5
Kerala 211,914 61 229,494 56.8 4.2
Delhi 107,310 49 129,628 46.5 2.5
Punjab 160,633 52 234,176 50 2.0
Andhra Pradesh 387,124 40.3 718,894 38.9 1.4
Uttarakhand 62,106 42.5 121,563 41.3 1.2

 

(Source: Ministry of Human Resources & Development)

 

Kerala has more than 60% women enrolment, which is highest among all the states.  Gujarat and Kerala rank number 1 & 2 with a decline of more than 4% enrolment in a period of 4-5 years. Delhi, which is the national capital, comes 3rd.

 

So, what can be the reasons for the decline in enrolments?

 

If we look at the UGC report on higher education we see that there exists tremendous academic and infrastructural gap in higher education as evident from the table below:

 

Table 3: Reasons For Reduction In Enrolment?

 

Indicators Average of all colleges Benchmark ( A grade colleges) Quality Gap
Total Number of Teachers 47 78 31
No.of teaching department per university 29 34 5
Number of sanctioned faculty position 287 432 145
Number of faculty position fulfilled 220 329 109
Total Number of Permanent Teachers 39 54 15
Total Number of Other teachers 9 25 16
Percentage of teachers without Phil/PhD 57 0 57
Overall teacher student ratio 27 20 -7
Student Teacher ratio by permanent teachers 33 30 -3
Number of books per college 11,966 15,215 3,249
Number of journals 13 22 9
Total Number of computers 6 11 5
Students per computer 229 145 -84

 

(-) is the reduction required; As on 2005….

 

(Source: University Grants Commission)

 

Unfortunately, state-wise data is not available on these parameters. From Table 3, we can see that there are major gaps in many factors, especially, teachers without MPhil/PhD. And student-teacher ratio is more than it should be.  So, all these factors may well be reasons for the reduction in women enrolments.

  1. Dinesh Reply

    October 3, 2012 at 8:51 pm

    Sir,

    Is this is what you call “Data Journalism”?
    Shame on you IndiaSpend.com!

    You say that ‘Gujraat has 2nd highest women enrollment’ in the article and than you find this for the headline?

    Please do not degrade yourself or at least the name of journalism.

    Regards,
    ~Dinesh.

  2. Sourjya Reply

    October 5, 2012 at 3:56 pm

    You have a point. But you will see that women enrollment decline has also been the highest in Gujarat ( over the past five years)….

  3. Mehul Tewar Reply

    October 16, 2012 at 11:28 am

    Wherever you go GUJARAT is become a benchmark for any survey!!! any news on Gujarat can create news that’s how the bread and butter of Media goes on!! (No disrespect but bitter truth)

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