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Launched in 2015, PMKVY is the Union government’s flagship skill development programme and offers free short-duration training. The programme comprises three components:

Short Term Training - The short-term training (STT) component at PMKVY Training Centres aims to benefit school/college dropouts and the unemployed. Alongside NSQF-based training, TCs offer soft skills, entrepreneurship, and financial/digital literacy. Successful candidates receive placement assistance from training providers.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL): enables Indian youth to get certified for their prior skills, improving their employability. It's for those with existing skills, assessing and certifying them for better livelihood opportunities, especially in unregulated sectors.

Special Projects: PMKVY's Special Projects branch aims to offer training in unique job roles not covered by standard guidelines.

The PM-KVY has two components, namely, Central component being implemented through National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), and State component being implemented through State Skill Development Mission of the State/UT.

One notable challenge is the disconnect between NSDC and the industry, experts say. Skill development programmes often fail to align with the actual regional demand for skills, creating a mismatch between training and local economic needs. Industry participation, particularly in apprenticeship programmes, has been limited. Further, the skill centres are not adequately equipped for the practical training. A lot of training ends up being theoretical, with little bit of practical component: DataViz: Govt’s Skill Development Scheme Placed Only 18% Candidates

Certified candidates under Short Term Trainings were facilitated for job opportunities, while Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) was not linked with placements as it recognized the existing skills of candidates.

About 20% of candidates who enrolled under the programme dropped out, data from a study conducted by Indian Institute of Public Administration (2016-20) show.

Under PMKVY, 818 Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendras (PMKKs) or training centres were allocated in all districts of India. However, only 722 PMKKs had been established by June 2022. Of the rest, 58 PMKKs were surrendered to the government by private vendors due to operational difficulties, while 38 approved PMKKs were yet to be established due to reasons such as infrastructure constraints, covid-related challenges, financial stress from the pandemic, and non-allocation of targets. Read more: IndiaSpend Story

Special Projects aim to uplift marginalized groups like rural artisans, women, and prison inmates. These projects will constitute 12% of the STT targets under the CSCM component. Approval for these projects will be granted by the Executive Committee, where states could allocate 15% of their targets. (Source)

IndiaSpend interview regarding the role of the scheme: Interview with KP Krishnan, who served as Secretary, Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship

Gender stereotypes heavily influence skill acquisition, with women often opting for beauty, textiles, office clerical work, and healthcare, while men gravitate towards electronics, engineering, and automotive fields. The DP-WEE study highlights this trend, showing that 30.2% of skilled women aged 18 to 35 focus on beauty-related sectors, followed by tailoring at 21.5%.

IndiaSpend Story - How Skilling Can Bridge The Gap Between Women & Work

In 2018-19, the MSDE was allocated Rs 3,400 crore in the budget, which represented a drastic cut against the Rs 7,696.54 crore requested. This was because MSDE under-utilised funds in previous years, revealed a 2018 parliamentary committee report. Interview with KP Krishnan

Besides the Central component sponsoring NSDC, PM-KVY also has a State component, being implemented through State Skill Development Mission of the State/UT. Since inception of the PM-KVY, an amount of Rs. 8,590.29 crore had been disbursed to NSDC towards the implementation of the scheme (as of Dec 2021).

Under State component of PMKVY, funds and corresponding physical targets have been allocated to the States for the implementation of scheme through State Skill Development Missions (SSDMs). Since incorporation of State component, i.e., 2016, as on 31.12.2021, an amount of Rs. 1,224.82 crore has been disbursed to States for the implementation of the scheme. The state component is just 14% of the central component.

Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab & Andhra Pradesh received the most funds from the Centre