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In April 2016, Government of India (GoI) announced the restructuring of Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY), a rural housing scheme started in 1996 and implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), into the Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G).

About 29.4 million houses were sanctioned under the scheme, of which 25.5 million houses were completed, as of February 1, 2024, as per the PMAY Gramin dashboard. The scheme was launched in 2015-16 with the target of providing housing for all by 2022. The deadline was later extended to March 2024.

Citizen Selection & Registration Process:

-- SECC 2011 identifies citizens, verified by GPs and Appellate Committee.
-- GP-wise PWL prepared.
-- Data entered on AwaasSoft for final list.
-- Eligible citizens registered on MIS, mapping job cards, bank details, phone numbers, and Aadhar.
-- 'Annual Select List' generated, sanctioning house construction for eligible citizens.

Due to under-reporting in the PWL based on SECC 2011, MoRD conducted an Awaas+ survey from January 2018 to March 2019 to ensure the inclusion of all eligible citizens.

The 21st report of the Standing Committee on Rural Development and Panchayat (2021-22) identified discrepancies in the identification of eligible citizens under PMAY-G through GPs. The committee recommended downsizing the role of the Sarpanch and GPs through the incorporation of a Block Development Officer (BDO) and involvement of Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) or private bodies, along with the adoption of a flexible approach so that no one is left behind.

"Hilly states in the North Eastern Region, like Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland, face adverse climatic conditions and geographies…it takes them far longer to build a house than the norms stipulate," said experts. Read our story on PMAY-G: FactChecker

The Framework for Implementation (FFI) of PMAY-G prescribes that house construction should be completed within 12 months or 365 days of sanctioning.

As on 1 January 2023, the average time taken for constructing a house was less than a year at 280 days.

Despite the average time taken for construction of houses within the stipulated timeframe as prescribed by the FFI, Bihar (2.3 lakh houses), Odisha (60,000 houses),and Jharkhand (50,000 houses) had the largest number of houses that took 2-3 years to complete. At the pan-India level, 6,14,282 houses had a completion time of 2-3 years till 1 January 2023.

Time taken to complete a house was more than a year in several NER states including Meghalaya (521 days), Manipur (471 days), Nagaland (431 days), Mizoram (394 days), and Assam (358 days). Other states which took more than a year included Goa (470 days), and Haryana (443 days).

On the other hand, Arunachal Pradesh took the least time for constructing houses at 157 days, followed by Uttar Pradesh (200 days), and Madhya Pradesh (234 days).

The entire PMAY-G allocations are included in Part A of the Gender Budget statement. Yet, as on 1 January 2023, only 26% of sanctioned houses were solely owned by women and an additional 44 per cent were jointly owned by men and women.

The total cost estimate for the scheme stands at Rs. 4,23,832 crore of which GoI’s share is Rs. 2,55,276 crore. For Phase 1, till March 2019, of the total cost estimate of Rs. 1,30,075 crore, GoI’s share was Rs. 81,975 crore, including Rs. 1,975 crore through borrowings from the National Bank for Rural Development (NABARD).

For Phase 2, till March 2022, the total cost was anticipated at Rs. 76,500 crore, of which GoI's share was Rs. 48,195 crore.

Phase 3, till March 2024, has seen a big increase in the estimated cost of constructing the remaining houses. A total of Rs. 2,17,257 crore has been anticipated, of which GoI’s share is Rs. 1,25,106 crore. This includes Rs. 18,676 crore towards the interest repayment to NABARD.

Analysis by Accountability India

GoI allocations to states and Union Territories (UTs) are released in two instalments. The first instalment (50% of the annual financial allocations for each state) is released in the beginning of the financial year, conditional on the submission of a proposal from the states.

The provision of the second instalment is subject to the utilisation of 60% of total available funds and fulfilment of necessary criteria on target setting, sanctions, release of first instalment, and the status of house construction.