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India’s Border Line Efforts

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Highlights 

* Border Area Development Programme being implemented in 17 states, and Rs 7,000 crore spent so far
* Jammu and Kashmir has utilised the highest amount of Rs 306 crore in various sectors
* 58% BADP funds spent on road construction in border districts

 

There is often criticism about India not investing enough to build infrastructure in the border areas, particularly in the north-east. It has also been pointed out that China has, for instance, spent much more on the other side.

 

IndiaSpend’s Bhumish Khudkhudia looks at how the Indian’ government’s Border Area Development Programme (BADP), started during the 7th Five-Year Plan in 1987, has benefited sensitive border districts situated near the international borders.

 

So far, Rs 7,000 crore has been released for socio-economic development of border areas under BADP. The programme is being implemented in 358 identified border blocks of 96 districts in 17 states that share international land border with neighbouring countries.  Table 1 shows the state-wise number of blocks and districts covered under BADP.

 

Table 1: BADP coverage

 

States

Number of Districts

Number of Blocks

Arunachal Pradesh

12

38

Jammu & Kashmir

11

44

West Bengal

9

65

Bihar

7

34

Assam

7

28

Uttar Pradesh

7

21

Mizoram

6

16

Meghalaya

5

10

Uttarakhand

5

9

Tripura

4

25

Punjab

4

19

Rajasthan

4

14

Nagaland

4

7

Sikkim

3

9

Gujarat

3

8

Manipur

3

8

Himachal Pradesh

2

3

Total

96

358

(Source: Rajya Sabha)

 

Let us now look at the funds released and utilised by the states for the last three years.

 

Table 2: BADP Funds Released And Utilised

 

States

2011-2012*

 

2010-2011

2009-2010

Amount released/

utilised

% of amount utilised

Amount released/

Utilised

% of amount utilised

Amount released/

utilised

% of Amount utilised

Jammu & Kashmir

124.62/106.31

85.30

107.00/103.84

97.04

98.78/ 97.98

99.19

West Bengal

135.63/51.95

38.30

77.91/62.03

79.61

62.22/62.22

100

Rajasthan

115.09/NA

86.96/77.86

89.53

92.96/92.96

100

Arunachal Pradesh

154.33/26.61

17.24

66.90/58.26

87.08

66.47/66.47

100

Tripura

96.35/32.68

33.91

35.79/35.18

98.29

30.06/30.06

100

Uttar Pradesh

48.76/26.69

54.73

33.65/33.65

100

29.95/29.95

100

Bihar

55.77/20.36

36.50

31.96/31.96

100

36.60/36.60

100

Gujarat

36.17/19.65

54.32

28.40/28.40

100

32.69/27.22

83.26

Uttarakhand

32.98/18.65

56.54

24.61/21.82

88.66

21.78/21.78

100

Punjab

32.92/9.47

28.76

22.25/21.30

95.73

29.78/29.78

100

Mizoram

38.40

29.30/29.30

100

24.94/24.94

100

Assam

19.80/9.26

46.76

48.00/23.56

49.08

23.95/17.15

71.60

Nagaland

20.15

25.00/25.00

100

19.50/19.50

100

Meghalaya

31.40/5.59

17.80

22.02/22.02

100

16.47/16.47

100

Manipur

20.00/8.17

40.85

18.43/12.47

67.66

20.86/20.86

100

Sikkim

20.85/7.50

35.97

20.00/13.37

66.85

15.21/15.21

100

Himachal Pradesh

20.00

12.80/12.80

100

12.76/12.76

100

Total

1,003.22/342.89

34.17

690.98/612.82

88.69

634.98/621.91

97.94

(Amount in Rs crore;  * As on 31st August, 2012)

 

Jammu & Kashmir has utilised Rs 308 crore during the last three financial years. However, the percentage of funds utilised has declined every year.

 

While West Bengal utilised Rs 176 crore, it is followed by Rajasthan with utilisation of Rs 171 crore. Rajasthan has not reported the utilisation of BADP funds in 2011-12.

 

So, where is the money being spent in the border areas? The top five sectors are roads, social sector, education, agriculture and security.

 

Table 3: Roads Top Spending List

 


States

Total Utilisation

Roads

Social Sector

Education

Agriculture

Security

Arunachal Pradesh

264.46

131.75

24.80

52.46

42.59

12.86

West Bengal

261.23

195.95

10.83

22.38

11.54

20.53

Jammu & Kashmir

211.68

116.04

47.45

12.74

20.95

14.50

Rajasthan

205.4

69.43

44.97

39.21

23.81

27.98

Tripura

148.85

90.84

14.51

24.54

8.66

10.30

Bihar

117.71

79.02

17.06

8.46

1.94

11.23

Uttar Pradesh

100.82

75.86

11.94

3.44

5.25

4.33

Gujarat

89.65

35.12

12.44

10.55

23.02

8.52

Assam

89.89

59.88

10.20

8.46

1.94

11.23

Punjab

83.40

57.23

10.46

6.82

1.88

7.01

Uttarakhand

75.90

42.78

14.19

9.08

5.55

4.30

Mizoram

72.74

42.51

1.48

15.77

8.40

4.58

Meghalaya

67.51

44.84

8.73

8.34

2.51

3.09

Manipur

56.28

32.12

8.81

4.61

7.66

3.08

Sikkim

51.04

30.08

7.68

4.77

7.21

1.30

Nagaland

49.76

25.05

11.64

5.23

7.84

Himachal Pradesh

31.29

11.57

5.45

5.87

4.71

3.69

Total and percentages

1,978 (100)

1,140 (57.63)

262 (13.24)

243 (12.28)

185

(9.35)

149

(7.53)

(Amount in Rs crore)

 

Construction and strengthening of roads, culverts and bridges in the border districts amounted to Rs 1,140 crore in the last three years. So, nearly 58% of BADP funds has been utilised in the roads sector. West Bengal spent the highest amount of Rs 196 crore followed by Arunachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir with Rs 131 crore and 116 crore, respectively.

 

Jammu & Kashmir leads in terms of allocating funds (Rs. 47.45 crore) for developing the social sector followed by Rajasthan utilising Rs. 44.97 crore. In the North East, Arunachal Pradesh leads by utilising Rs. 24.80 crore. Projects taken up under the social sector are construction of community centres, anganwadis, rural sanitation blocks, community halls, skill upgradation of artisans and weavers and construction of common shelters for the elderly and/or physically challenged.
Rajasthan, which shares its border with Pakistan, utilised the highest amount of Rs 27.98 crore for strengthening its security. West Bengal, which shares its border with Bangladesh, utilised Rs. 20.53 crore. Overall, Rs. 149 crore has been spent on strengthening security of the border areas.

 

Given the difficult terrain and complex socio-economic situation along the borders, effective development of border areas is a challenging task.  Equally, there is much scope to improve the levels of education, boosting agriculture and augmenting the security of the border areas.

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